Black codes: Among the many codes that governed the lives of African Americans immediately after the Civil War were vagrancy statutes that made unemployment illegal.
Sundown towns: In an effort to keep towns across the US white, many enacted policies that expressly called for African Americans, Chinese Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and Jewish Americans to be outside of the boundaries of certain towns by sunset.
Stop-and-frisk: According to the New York Civil Liberties Union, hundreds of thousands of residents (overwhelmingly African American and Latino) have been interrogatedthe under NYPD's stop-and-frisk policy. Nine out of ten residents were found to be completely innocent. 
Broken windows: The idea behind broken windows policing is that addressing very minor offenses prevents bigger crimes from occurring. The reality, however, is that selectively targeting poor communities in the "crack-down" on the sale of loose cigarettes, loitering, and jaywalking has meant that people of color are targets of daily interrogation, harrassment, indignity, and violence.

From 2005 to 2008, 80% of NYC residents stopped were African American and Latino, and only 2.6% of all stops led to the discovery of weapons or contraband.    


Center for Constitutional Rights

Historical and contemporary structural injustices in policing traumatize and demonize entire communities.